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欧宝体育官方入口-猪猪可以拯救人类的器官吗?



发布日期:2021-03-28 01:12:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

In a recent push, we explained that organ transplantation and scientists’

在最近的一项推动中,我们解释了器官移植和科学家的

A few days ago, there was a news about "pig 3.0" organ transplantation technology, which brought xenotransplantation into the public eye again:

几天前,有一个关于“猪3.0”器官移植技术的新闻,该技术再次将异种移植带入了公众的视线:

what? Can pigs be used for organ transplants?

什么?猪可以用于器官移植吗?

Kids, you must have many small question marks:

孩子们,您必须有许多小的问号:

Why can't people use pigs?

人们为什么不能使用猪?

If there is a pig's heart or something in your body, it sounds too psychedelic, right?

如果您的心脏中有猪的心或东西,那听起来太迷幻了,对吗?

Why do we have to use a pig's heart?

为什么我们必须动用猪的心?

In fact, the psychedelic operation of organ transplantation between species as early as

实际上,早在物种间进行器官移植的迷幻手术

Why did you think of using organs from other animals for organ transplants?

您为什么考虑使用其他动物的器官进行器官移植?

The biggest problem with human-to-human organ transplantation is that there will be

人与人器官移植的最大问题是

Human beings are already so dangerous. If transplanting animal organs to humans is also called

人类已经如此危险。如果也将动物器官移植到人类

But there is one of the most serious problems in human-to-human transplantation:

但是,人与人之间的移植存在最严重的问题之一:

Taking my country as an example, the number of organ donations in 2018 reached 6,302, which is already the second highest level in the world, but the number of organ transplant operations has reached 20,000.

以我国为例,2018年的器官捐赠数量达到了6,302,已经是世界第二高水平,但器官移植手术的数量却达到了20,000。

In addition, there are countless families waiting for organ transplants. For example, the Hong Kong Department of Health's appeal for organ donation mentioned that "more than two thousand patients every day" are waiting for organ donations.

此外,有无数家庭在等待器官移植。例如,香港卫生署在呼吁器官捐赠时提到“每天有两千多名患者”在等待器官捐赠。

Therefore, in recent years, scientists have turned their attention to xenotransplantation: the problem of the number of animals can be solved.

因此,近年来,科学家将注意力转向异种移植:可以解决动物数量的问题。

Wait, why is it "again"?

等等,为什么又是“?”

In fact, the history of xenotransplantation is as long as that of human-to-human organ transplantation.

实际上,异种移植的历史与人类器官移植的历史一样欧宝体育官方入口长。

The earliest record is that in 1682, a Russian nobleman was injured in battle, and his skull was missing. Surgeon Job Janszoon van Meekeren gave him a block.

最早的记录是在1682年,一名俄罗斯贵族在战斗中受伤,头骨丢失。外科医生乔布斯(Janszoon van Meekeren)给了他一个障碍。

The Christian church at that time was frightened when he knew it: "This man has a part of his head as a dog! Then he can never be a Christian!" But when the pious nobleman wanted to take it out again, he found that the wound had healed. Even the effect is not bad.

当时的基督教会感到震惊,因为他知道:“这个人的头像狗一样有一部分!那么他永远不可能成为基督徒!”但是当虔诚的贵族想再次将其取出时,他发现伤口已经愈合。即使效果也不错。

In the dreamy 17th century, there were more magical operations.

在梦幻的17世纪,进行了更多的魔术操作。

French doctor Jean-Baptiste Denys tried

法国医生让·巴蒂斯特·丹尼斯(Jean-Baptiste Denys)尝试

In the 19th century, there were more types of xenogeneic organ transplantation-sheep's urethra, rabbit eyes, frog skin... Although some people say that their transplantation was successful, the skin structure is actually far more than they thought. To be complicated, for example, there are multiple layers of cells under the skin and densely covered with various blood vessels and nerves, and direct attachment cannot be transplanted.

在19世纪,异种器官移植的类型越来越多,例如绵羊的尿道,兔眼,青蛙皮肤……尽管有人说他们的移植成功了,但皮肤结构实际上远远超出了他们的想象。举例来说,复杂的是,在皮肤下有多层细胞,并被各种血管和神经密集地覆盖,不能直接附着。

By the beginning of the 20th century, with the invention of Alexis Carrel

到20世纪初,Alexis Carrel的发明

In 1905, Princeteau tried to put a piece of

1905年,普林斯顿(Princeteau)尝试将

Later, some people tried to use the kidneys of pigs and sheep for transplantation, but the patients all appeared after transplantation.

后来有人尝试用猪和羊的肾脏进行移植,但所有患者均在移植后出现。

Why did these attempts fail?

为什么这些尝试失败了?

We mentioned earlier that human-to-human organ transplantation has the problem of immune transplant rejection. There are more problems in xenotransplantation, and the uncontrollability is more obvious. There are three main dangers that are relatively clear.

我们之前提到过,人与人之间的器官移植存在免疫移植排斥的问题。异种移植存在更多的问题,不可控性更加明显。有三个相对明显的主要危险。

One is

一个是

Another hazard is because

另一个危险是因为

There is another less obvious threat, which is

还有另一个不太明显的威胁,那就是

and

In addition, there may be many problems: for example, different animals

此外,可能存在许多问题:例如,不同的动物

This is even more unknown.

这甚至更加未知。

But scientists are the kind of people who discover problems, put forward hypotheses, and solve problems. Since there are so many obstacles, we must always find a way to overcome them.

但是科学家是发现问题,提出假设并解决问题的那种人。由于存在许多障碍,我们必须始终找到克服这些障碍的方法。

Scientists set their sights on the chimpanzees who are closest to people.

科学家把目光投向了最接近人的黑猩猩。

We always say that people are changed from monkeys, but in fact, the statement is not exact, it should be

我们总是说人们是从猴子身上变来的,但实际上,这种说法并不准确,应该是

The chimpanzee and our common ancestor are the closest, about

黑猩猩和我们的祖先最接近,

Chimpanzee: I am co-authored with you and I am forced to donate organs?

黑猩猩:我与您合着,我被迫捐赠器官吗?

(Source: Wikipedia | Aaron Logan)

(来源:维基百科|亚伦·洛根)

As early as 1964, six patients with uremia or severe renal failure had undergone

早在1964年,就有6名尿毒症或严重肾衰竭患者接受了治疗。

After that, scientists also conducted several kidney transplant experiments of chimpanzees or baboons, but the results were not satisfactory. The patient's survival time was only extended by a few weeks.

此后,科学家还进行了黑猩猩或狒狒的几次肾脏移植实验,但结果并不令人满意。患者的生存时间仅延长了几周。

In addition to the kidney, many doctors have tried to use the heart of a chimpanzee or baboon for organ transplantation, but the patient is very weak, and the heart of the chimpanzee or baboon has insufficient blood supply capacity, and even if the transplant is successful, there will be huge immunity. Rejection, after these operations are over

除了肾脏外,许多医生还尝试使用黑猩猩或狒狒的心脏进行器官移植,但患者非常虚弱,黑猩猩或狒狒的心脏的血液供应能力不足,即使是成功的话,将会有巨大的免疫力。这些操作结束后,拒绝

Although these attempts were not successful, some experiments have actually promoted

尽管这些尝试均未成功,但实际上已经进行了一些实验

For example, in 1983, Leonard Bailey received a baby patient with congenital heart disease, but there were almost no baby organ donations, so Leonard used a baboon heart. The operation was successful, but because of immune rejection, the baby died 20 days later.

例如,在1983年,伦纳德·贝利(Leonard Bailey)收治了一名患有先天性心脏病的婴儿患者,但几乎没有婴儿器官捐赠,因此伦纳德使用了狒狒心脏。手术成功,但是由于免疫排斥,婴儿在20天后死亡。

But this

但是这个

As chimpanzees have become an endangered species (of course not because of organ transplants), and the similarities between chimpanzees and humans have caused huge ethical issues, chimpanzees are no longer allowed to be used for such operations and research.

由于黑猩猩已成为濒临灭绝的物种(当然不是因为器官移植),并且黑猩猩与人类之间的相似性已引起了巨大的伦理问题,因此不再允许黑猩猩用于此类操作和研究。

After all, according to the demand for human organs, chimpanzees can become extinct in a few years.

毕竟,根据对人体器官的需求,黑猩猩可能会在几年内灭绝。

A door was closed, and the scientist opened another window, which seemed to be an advanced French window.

一扇门关上了,科学家又打开了另一扇窗户,这似乎是法国的高级窗户。

They set their sights on

他们把目光投向了

The organ size of pigs is similar to that of humans, and the risk of infectious diseases is relatively low. Compared with chimpanzees and baboons, the number of pigs is quite sufficient, so there is no need to worry about the number.

猪的器官大小与人类相似,并且感染疾病的风险相对较低。与黑猩猩和狒狒相比,猪的数量非常充足,因此无需担心数量。

But compared with chimpanzees, pigs have a longer common ancestor with humans, about

但与黑猩猩相比,猪与人的共同祖先更长,大约是

When the scientist was frustrated,

当科学家感到沮丧时,

We can solve the problems of immune rejection, uncontrolled blood coagulation, endogenous virus and so on through gene editing through known key gene loci of the immune system of pigs and humans.

我们可以通过已知的猪和人免疫系统关键基因位点的基因编辑来解决免疫排斥,血液不受控制,内源性病毒等问题。

But it’s easy to say, but not easy to implement: related to immunity and coagulation

但是说起来容易,但是却不容易实现:与免疫力和凝血有关

This is destined to be another protracted battle, and it has been fought for decades.

这注定是另一场旷日持久的战斗,并且已经战斗了数十年。

Scientists are constantly trying to transplant gene-edited pig organs to

科学家们一直在尝试将经过基因编辑的猪器官移植到

In the beginning, the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene was knocked out (the first period, GTKO pig), which reduced the response of T cells to pig cells; then the complement response was further controlled (the second period, CRP pig); To control the expression of thrombomodulin gene (the third period), the survival time of pig organs in baboons is also getting longer and longer. (As shown below)

最初,淘汰了α1,3-半乳糖基转移酶基因(第一期,GTKO猪),这降低了T细胞对猪细胞的反应。然后进一步控制补体反应(第二期,CRP猪);为了控制血栓调节蛋白基因的表达(第三期),狒狒中欧宝体育app猪器官的存活时间也越来越长。 (如下所示)

Up to now, the genetically edited pig organs have been able to survive in the baboons for at least half a year.

到目前为止,经过基因编辑的猪器官已经能够在狒狒中存活至少半年了。

At the same time, scientists are also working hard to control other possible problems in xenotransplantation. For example, in the news we mentioned at the beginning, Yang Luhan used gene-edited pigs to overcome them.

同时,科学家也在努力控制异种移植中的其他可能问题。例如,在一开始我们提到的新闻中,杨鹿han用基因编辑的猪来欧宝体育app克服它们。

But this is only the first battle in this protracted battle to overcome the problem of organ transplantation, and there are long research and clinical trials waiting for scientists.

但这只是克服器官移植问题的这场旷日持久的战斗中的第一场战斗,并且有长期的研究和临床试验在等待着科学家。

Although pigs have lighter ethical issues than chimpanzees and are not about protecting animals, with the development of technology, our future will be very wonderful:

尽管与黑猩猩相比,猪的伦理问题更轻,并且与保护动物无关,但是随着技术的发展,我们的未来将非常美好:

George Orwell’s sentence at the end of "Animal Farm" is probably in one sentence:

乔治·奥威尔(George Orwell)在“动物农场”结尾处的一句话可能是一句话:

However, we may first consider a question: how will people who transplant pig hearts feel when they eat pork?

但是,我们可能首先要考虑一个问题:移植猪心的人吃猪肉时会有什么感觉?

What do you think?

你怎么看?

 
 
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